State of Qatar


The State of Qatar is located on the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. 2.8 million people live in Qatar, with 88.4% identifying as non-Qatari and 11.6% identifying at Qatari. The majority of the population practices Islam at 65.2%. The remaining population practices Christianity (13.7%), Hinduism (15.9%), Buddhism (3.8%), folk religion (<.1%), and Judaism (<.1%).



The Gulf crisis that started in 2017 continued, with ties severed between Qatar and Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

New laws were passed offering migrant workers better legal protections. Despite government measures to control the spread of COVID-19, migrant workers bore the brunt of the pandemic’s impact. The authorities further tightened restrictions on freedom of expression. Women continued to face discrimination in law and practice. Executions resumed after a 20-year hiatus.

Despite the progress made by the government of Qatar, allegations of torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment continue to be reported, albeit sporadically.

In January, the Emir appointed Sheikh Khalid bin Khalifa bin Abdulaziz Al Thani as Prime Minister and formed a new cabinet.

In March, the government introduced a series of measures to control the spread of COVID-19, including access to free health care, and provided financial support to businesses. The Emir also amended the Prevention of Infectious Diseases Law to increase fines and prison sentences for anyone violating its provisions and established a Health Prosecution Unit dedicated to such prosecutions.

In November, the Emir announced that long-promised elections to the Shura Council (an advisory body that acts as a quasi-parliament) will be held in 2021.


Death penalty

Executions resumed in April after a 20-year hiatus.


Freedom of Assembly, association, and expression

Freedom of expression was further restricted by a vaguely worded law passed in January that criminalized a broad range of speech and publishing.7 Under the law, “biased” broadcasting or publishing can be punished by up to five years in prison and a fine of QAR100,000 (over US$25,000).

The authorities continued to exercise arbitrary executive powers, placing administrative sanctions such as travel bans on individuals without judicial process, in some cases seemingly as punishment for their political opinions or peaceful activities.


Right to health

The COVID-19 crisis exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers in Qatar.4 Although the government introduced some positive measures, such as free health care and testing for everybody, migrant workers were particularly affected by the pandemic and exposed to infection as a result of overcrowded and often insanitary living conditions.5 Cases of unpaid wages increased sharply from March and despite government-backed financial packages to support businesses and mitigate the impacts of the pandemic, thousands of companies failed to pay workers on time. Despite the government’s announcement of measures and efforts to provide support to migrant workers, some of those living in lockdown areas complained about the lack of food and supplies.

In April, police rounded up dozens of Nepali migrant workers and told them they were to be tested for COVID-19 and then returned to their accommodation. Instead, they were taken to detention centers and held in appalling conditions for several days, before being expelled to Nepal without explanation or due process.


Right to privacy

Qatar’s contact tracing app EHTERAZ, developed by the Ministry of Interior to contain the spread of COVID-19, had a serious security flaw that exposed sensitive personal details of over 1 million users. Once the authorities were alerted to the flaw, they quickly fixed it.9 The app, like many others, remained problematic due to its lack of privacy safeguards.


Rights of Refugees and Migrants

Migrant workers’ rights

Significant reforms aiming to protect migrant workers from labour abuse and exploitation were introduced, but employers continued to retain disproportionate powers as they oversee the entry and residence of migrant workers and can file criminal “absconding” charges against them. Following announcements by the Minister of Administrative Development, Labour and Social Affairs (MADLSA) in 2019 to abolish the kafala (sponsorship) system, in January the Ministry of Interior extended the abolition of the exit permit requirement to include domestic workers, stipulating, however, that they inform employers 72 hours before their departure.

In June, MADLSA announced the opening of a joint office with the Judiciary Supreme Council to facilitate implementation of the decisions of newly established committees to resolve labour disputes. However, access to justice for migrant workers remained largely slow and fruitless, and the conditions under which workers could collect their unpaid wages from the support fund, set up to help them recoup their money, were unclear.

Around 100 migrant workers, employed on a construction project for a FIFA World Cup stadium, worked for up to seven months without pay. While most employees eventually received the majority of their basic salaries, some workers still had several months of salaries or allowances outstanding at the end of the year.

Despite some pilot projects to set up joint committees to represent workers in various companies, migrant workers, unlike Qatari nationals, were still unable to form or join trade unions.

In its July report following a visit to Qatar, the Special Rapporteur on racism raised serious concerns regarding the “structural forms of racial discrimination against non-nationals” and called on the government to “take urgent steps to dismantle what is in effect a quasi-caste system based on national origin”, including in the private sector.

In August, the Emir signed a series of laws setting a non-discriminatory minimum wage that must be revised annually, and two others abolishing the necessity for migrant workers to obtain the “No-Objection Certificate” from their employer to change jobs. The new legislation enabled workers to change jobs freely through an online process led by MADLSA. In preparation for this move, in July, the government launched a re-employment platform to enable companies and employees to seek new employment opportunities.


Sexual and Gender-Based Discrimination and Violence

There are indications that the police in Qatar are reluctant to treat violence against women, particularly violence within the family, as a criminal matter although such violence constitutes an assault under strict application of the law. This police reluctance to address the issue using the criminal law, it is suggested, tends to deter women from coming forward to report violence to which they are subject within the home.

Article 35 of the new Qatari Constitution bans all discrimination “on grounds of sex, race, language, or religion”. In practice, however, women remained subject to gender discrimination under a range of laws and practices, such as laws concerning marriage contracts that favor men. Women must also obtain approval from their husband or guardian before traveling, and children of Qatari women who marry foreign nationals do not qualify for Qatari citizenship, unlike children born to Qatari fathers and foreign mothers.


Torture and other ill-treatment

Despite the progress made by the government of Qatar, allegations of torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment continue to be reported, albeit sporadically, and there are not adequate systems in place, in practice, to ensure prompt, independent investigation of allegations of torture or ill-treatment and adequate remedy or redress for victims. Sentences of flogging continued to be imposed.

Qatar’s domestic legislation fails to define or adequately prohibit torture. Article 36 of the Constitution states “…No one shall be subjected to torture or degrading treatment. Torture shall be considered a crime publishable by law”. However, this is not reflected in Qatar’s Penal Code of 2004, which contains no provision specifically prohibiting torture and fails therefore, to give legislative effect to this important constitutional safeguard.

Incommunicado detention is standard practice by State Security forces in Qatar. Amnesty International has received reports in recent years of dozens of people being detained incommunicado by State Security forces for weeks or months, followed by prolonged arbitrary detention without charge or trial.

In 2006, the UN Committee against Torture examined Qatar’s implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Committee expressed concern that arrest and detention procedures placed suspects at increased risk of torture, particularly the lack of access to a lawyer or independent doctor or any requirement that the authorities notify a detainee’s relatives of the arrest.

Qatari blogger and the founder of a human rights organization, Sultan al-Khalaifi, who was arrested on March 2nd 2011 and detained incommunicado was released on April 1st 2011 without any charges.


Women’s rights

Women continued to face discrimination in law and practice.

Family law continued to discriminate against women, including by making it much harder for them to seek a divorce, severely disadvantaging them economically if they sought a divorce or their husband left them.

In its report following its visit to Qatar, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention noted that women under the age of 25 must obtain the permission of their male guardians to engage in daily activities such as signing contracts and leaving the country. As a result, it said, “women were prevented from leaving their family homes without the permission of their legal guardians, resulting in de facto deprivation of liberty by their families.”

On 2 October, the Qatari authorities took a number of women off planes when they were travelling out of Doha’s airport in the capital and subjected them to forced, private medical examinations to determine if they had given birth; a baby girl had been found abandoned in a bin at the airport. The incident drew a public outcry prompting Qatar to issue an apology and launch an investigation into the incident.


Migrant women domestic workers

Migrant domestic workers, mostly women, continued to face severe forms of abuse without access to a remedy despite the Domestic Workers Law introduced in 2017. Many employers made women work an average of 16 hours a day, denied them rest, prevented them from taking a day off in the week, and confiscated their passports despite this being illegal. These abuses took place in a climate of complete impunity for perpetrators. The only shelter, established in 2019, to offer refuge for domestic workers fleeing abuse and exploitation was not fully operational, making it even more difficult for them to leave an abusive workplace, let alone press charges against their employer.

Qatar Newsroom

February 26, 2019 • Report

Human rights in the Middle East and North Africa: A review of 2018

The international community’s chilling complacency towards wide-scale human rights violations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has emboldened governments to commit appalling violations during 2018 by giving them …

February 4, 2019 • Report

Qatar: Authorities must step up efforts to honour labour rights promises before 2022 World Cup

With less than four years to go until the 2022 World Cup, the Qatari authorities risk falling behind on their promise to tackle widespread labour exploitation of thousands of migrant workers, Amnesty International said today.

September 25, 2018 • Report

Qatar: Migrant workers unpaid for months of work by company linked to World Cup host city

A new investigation by Amnesty International has exposed how an engineering company involved in building 2022 FIFA World Cup infrastructure took advantage of Qatar’s notorious sponsorship system to exploit scores of migrant workers. The company, Mercury MENA, failed to pay its workers thousands of dollars in wages and work benefits, leaving them stranded and penniless in Qatar.

December 9, 2016 • Report

New name, old system? Qatar’s new employment law and abuse of migrant workers

Changes to labor laws in Qatar barely scratch the surface and will continue to leave migrant workers, including those building stadiums and infrastructure for the World Cup, at the mercy of exploitative bosses and at risk of forced labor, said Amnesty International in a new briefing.

March 29, 2016 • Report

The Ugly Side of the Beautiful Game

Migrant workers building Khalifa International Stadium in Doha for the 2022 World Cup have sufferedsystematic abuses, in some cases forced labour, Amnesty International reveals in a new report published today.

February 18, 2016 • Report

Amnesty International State of the World 2015-2016

International protection of human rights is in danger of unravelling as short-term national self-interest and draconian security crackdowns have led to a wholesale assault on basic freedoms and rights, warned Amnesty International as it launched its annual assessment of human rights around the world. “Your rights are in jeopardy: they are being treated with utter contempt by many governments around the world,” said Salil Shetty, Secretary General of Amnesty International.

May 20, 2015 • Report

Promising Little, Delivering Less: Qatar and Migrant Labor Abuse Ahead of the 2022 Football World Cup

More than a year after Qatar’s government promised limited reforms to improve migrant labor rights, hopes of true progress are fading fast, says Amnesty International in a new briefing published today.

February 25, 2015 • Report

State of the World 2014/2015

This has been a devastating year for those seeking to stand up for human rights and for those caught up in the suffering of war zones. Governments pay lip service to the importance of protecting civilians. And yet the world's politicians have miserably failed to protect those in greatest need. Amnesty International believes that this can and must finally change.

November 10, 2014 • Report

No Extra Time: How Qatar is Still Failing on Workers’ Rights Ahead of the World Cup

Qatar’s authorities are lagging severely behind on efforts to address the rampant abuse of migrant workers’ rights, despite the government's announcement of a series of reforms to tackle exploitation ahead of the 2022 World Cup. "No Extra Time: How Qatar is Still Failing on Workers’ Rights Ahead of the World Cup" sets out how the Qatari government has failed to reform the systems that facilitate the abuse of migrant workers and has made only minimal progress on a number of plans it announced in May 2014.

April 26, 2014 • Report

‘My Sleep Is My Break’ Exploitation Of Migrant Domestic Workers In Qatar

Qatar's laws do not limit the number of hours a day or the number of days a week that domestic workers can be asked to work. At its worst extreme, the abuse of domestic workers can involve physical and sexual abuse.