Head of state Lech Kaczy?ski
Head of government Donald Tusk
Death penalty abolitionist for all crimes
Population 38.1 million
Life expectancy 75.5 years
Under-5 mortality (m/f) 9/7 per 1,000
Adult literacy 99.3 per cent
The results of an investigation into Poland’s alleged involvement in the US-led renditions (unlawful transfers of terrorist suspects between countries) and secret detention programme remained classified. Poland was referred to the European Court of Justice for failing to incorporate into national law the EU legislation prohibiting gender discrimination. International bodies criticized the impediments faced by women in accessing certain reproductive health services, including abortion, even when their lives were at risk. Poland was criticized for the use of criminal defamation legislation.
Counter-terror and security
The National Public Prosecutor continued to investigate allegations that Poland hosted a secret detention facility where “high value detainees” were interrogated by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 2002 and 2003. In April, Roman Giertych, former head of a parliamentary commission, said that he had presented documentary evidence of potentially criminal acts to the government in 2006. Findings of the Commission remained classified. Former officials, including former President Aleksander Kwasniewski, denied the allegations, but acknowledged ongoing co-operation between the CIA and the Polish intelligence agency.
Also in April the TVP television station and the Rzeczpospolita newspaper published new evidence of Poland’s involvement, including a flight book from Szymany airport where US jets were reported to have landed regularly in 2002 and 2003.
In July the National Public Prosecutor informed Amnesty International that his office had initiated an investigation in March 2008 into possible infringements of authority by public servants in connection with secret CIA operations in Europe. However, the scope and methodology of the investigation would not be made public, as it was classified information.
In May Poland was referred to the European Court of Justice by the European Commission for failing to incorporate into national law EU legislation prohibiting gender discrimination in access to, and supply of, goods and services. The anti-discrimination legislation had not been adopted by the end of December. However, the government did prepare a draft law to strengthen the powers of the Commissioner for the Protection of Civil Rights to act as an equality body.
Sexual and reproductive rights
Women had difficulty accessing abortion services within the health system even when permitted by law, including in cases when their lives were at risk. Medical service providers and health institutions were not held accountable for denying access to lawful health services or for the consequences of that denial on women’s health and lives. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights criticized Poland for not guaranteeing basic sexual and reproductive health services such as contraception and family planning services.
Parliament adopted the Patients’ Rights and the Ombudsperson for Patients’ Rights Act, which allows any patient to file an objection against a physician’s opinion or ruling. Its enactment followed a 2007 ruling by the European Court of Human Rights in Tysi?c v Poland that Poland violated the right to respect for private life because it provided no timely or effective means for women to appeal against doctors’ decisions to deny them access to abortion services. However, the new law required the Medical Board to rule on a complaint within 30 days, a delay that could be too long for certain medical procedures and thus constitute a violation of the right to health. In addition, the Medical Board was allowed to return a patient’s complaint unanswered if they were unable to cite the legal basis of the rights or obligations being claimed. The need to hire a lawyer was a serious disincentive for patients in low or middle income groups.
- In June the European Court of Human Rights asked the government to clarify the circumstances of the death in September 2004 of a 25-year-old pregnant woman, Z. In the months before her death, she was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and an abscess that required three operations to remove. Z was admitted to a number of hospitals, but none would perform a full endoscopy and other diagnostic examinations for fear of risking the life of the foetus, despite appeals from her family. Z miscarried on 5 September 2004 in the fifth month of pregnancy and died from septic shock on 29 September 2004.
The European Court of Human Rights ruled on pretrial detentions and prison overcrowding in Poland.
- In February, in Kauczor v Poland, the Court concluded that numerous cases of excessively lengthy detention on remand revealed a “malfunctioning of the Polish criminal justice system” that affected large numbers of individuals.
- In Jamrozy v Poland, the Court ruled in September that the extensive length of pre-trial detention – more than two years – violated the right to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial.
- In October the Court found Poland in violation of the prohibition of torture or degrading treatment. Krzysztof Orchowski had passed most of his prison sentence in a cell with a personal space smaller than 3m² and at times 2m². The government acknowledged that prison overcrowding was systemic.
Freedom of expression
Criminalizing defamation, an offence punishable by up to two years’ imprisonment for journalists (Article 212 of the criminal code), had – in at least one case – an adverse effect on freedom of expression.
- In February the European Court of Human Rights found that Poland had violated the right to freedom of expression. In 2000 journalist Jacek D?ugo??cki was convicted of insulting a politician under Article 212 and fined. The ruling stated that the penalty amounted to a form of censorship and that the conviction was likely to deter journalists from contributing to public discussion or performing their task as public watchdog.
Refugees and asylum-seekers
Refugees and asylum-seekers continued to experience difficulties in accessing health care services and the labour market. In December some 200 asylum seekers, mostly people from Georgia and Chechnya, travelled to Strasbourg without tickets or identity documents as a way of protesting at the conditions of refugees and asylum-seekers in Poland.