Head of state President Ismael Omar Guelleh
Head of government Prime Minister Dileita Mohamed Dileita
Death penalty abolitionist for all crimes
Life expectancy 55.1
Under-5 mortality (m/f) 134/116 per 1,000
Adult Literacy 70.3 per cent
Freedom of expression was restricted. The government prevented trade unions from operating
freely. Human rights defenders were harassed and intimidated by the authorities.
Unemployment remained high. The global rise in food prices contributed to an increase in malnutrition among the poor. Eritrea maintained a troop presence in the disputed Ras Doumeira area and Doumeira Island.
Freedom of expression
Freedom of expression was limited. Journalists exercised self-censorship to avoid harassment by the authorities. The government imposed restrictions on the independent press. Human rights defenders’ work was scrutinized by government authorities to harass and intimidate them from carrying out lawful activities.
- On 2 July, poet Ahmed Darar Robleh was arrested for writing poetry critical of the President. He was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment on 19 July.
Freedom of association
The government reportedly disrupted trade union activity.
- On 13 October, police prevented the Union of Djibouti Workers (Union Djiboutienne du Travail, UDT) from holding a seminar at the People’s Palace in Djibouti following instructions from the Office of the Prime Minister.
- Soldiers reportedly extorted money from Houmad Mohamed Ibrahim, a local leader in Tadjourah district. The soldiers beat him and members of his family. They transported male family members to the military barracks at Tadjourah where they were arbitrarily detained and beaten.