Russian Federation


Russian Federation Human Rights

General Overview

The Russian Federation has more territory than any other country in the world, spanning two continents and northern Eurasia. It has a population of 142 million people, 80% of whom are ethnic Russians. Russia remains a diverse country, however, with populations of over 150 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples living within its boundaries. Its political structures are governed by the constitution adopted in 1993 under Boris Yeltsin. Though nominally a democracy with periodic elections, this constitution granted to the Presidency extensive power over both the legislative process and the state's executive functions. In the 2000s, President Vladimir Putin exploited these institutional levers to gain the kind of authority usually associated with authoritarianism.

To understand many Russians' enthusiasm for Putin's heavy-handed rule, one must understand that most Russians experienced the collapse of Soviet power as a time of political chaos and economic hardship. Under Yeltsin's rule, Russian political institutions became quite weak, undermined by a lack of resources, widespread corruption and competing jurisdictions between governments at the central, regional and local levels. Fortunately, the figurative "war of sovereignties" escalated to genuine armed conflict only in Chechnya, but in the ensuing years the conflict has expanded increasingly into the North Caucasus and provoked terrorist actions within Moscow's city limits. Meanwhile, the Russian economy suffered a systemic collapse. Despite substantial immigration from former Soviet republics, Russia's population has declined by about six million since 1991. The life expectancy fell to about 63 years for a Russian man, and 74 years for a Russian women, and the birth rate declined to record lows for peacetime.

In this context, Putin's promise in 2000 to restore economic and political order was hugely popular. By the time he stepped down in 2008, the Putin administration had established control over most of the mass media, the regional leadership, the political parties and even civil society. His economic success, however, could be attributed in large part to the high price of oil. The economic crisis of 2008 hit Russia hard, and one is beginning to see some dissatisfaction among the Russian populatioin. Earlier in 2008, Putin stepped down from the Presidency in favor of his protégé, Dmitri Medvedev, and accepted the position of Prime Minister instead. Since then, official rhetoric between the government and human rights workers and other activists has softened somewhat, but the general lines of policy remain the same. Meanwhile, it remains unclear precisely how power is shared in the "tandemocracy" of Putin and Medvedev, and whether or not the current relations between the two will remain as they are.


2008 Russia – Georgia Conflict

During the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008, Amnesty International USA acquired satellite imagery to analyze and document the destruction to Tskhinvali and 24 of its surrounding villages. Much of the observed damage occurred after the major hostilities of the first two days of the conflict.

Read More


Human Rights Issues

The greatest concerns for human rights in the Russian Federation concern the ongoing conflicts in the North Caucasus, where reports of enforced disappearances, the killings of civilians and torture remain commonplace. Related to this violence have been ongoing efforts to silence voices of dissent. Most famously, the outspoken advocate of human rights in Chechnya, Anna Politikovskaya, was murdered in her Moscow apartment building in 2006. But in 2009 alone, under President Medvedev, four other prominent human rights activists were assassinated, including Natalia Estemirova, Stanislav Markelov Marksharip Aushev and Ivan Khutorskii. It remains unclear who ordered these murders and for what reasons, as none of the perpetrators in these four cases have been brought to justice. Less dramatically, the regime has continued its harass oppositional leaders, human rights activists, and environmental activists, among others, under the guise of the struggle against extremism. Meanwhile, the exercise of justince continues to be selective and even arbitrary in many cases.

In addition to these concerns, other human rights issues in Russia include the treatment of prisoners in the Russian criminal justice system, incidents of racial violence against ethnic minorities and other foreigners living in Russia, the treatment of migrant workers, and domestic violence.

Russian Federation Newsroom

March 31, 2020 • Report

Authorities in Russia Urged to Protect Half a Million Prison Population in Face of COVID-19

Russian authorities should take urgent measures to address the potentially devastating consequences should COVID-19 begin spreading among prisoners and detainees, Amnesty International said in a letter to Russian government agencies. At least 9,000 of Russia’s 519,600-strong prison population are over 60-years-old and many more in poor health.

February 7, 2020 • Press Release

Prominent Investigative Journalist and Lawyer Attacked During Visit to Chechnya

Reacting to news of a mob attack late last night, in the Chechen capital Grozny, on two visiting human rights activists –one of whom is investigative journalist Elena Milashina, who uncovered a vicious campaign of abduction, torture and killings against gay men in Chechnya two years ago, Denis Krivosheev, Amnesty International’s Eastern Europe and Central Asia Deputy Director, said:

September 7, 2019 • Press Release

Filmmaker Oleg Sentsov and others freed in prisoner swap

Reacting to the news that Ukrainian filmmaker Oleg Sentsov and dozens of other detainees have been released as a part of prisoner exchange between Russia and Ukraine, Marie Struthers, Amnesty International’s Director for Eastern Europe and Central Asia, said: “Oleg Sentsov and many others jailed following Russia’s occupation and illegal annexation of Crimea are simply …

July 15, 2019 • Press Release

10 Years Since the Killing of Chechen Human Rights Defender Natalia Estemirova, No Justice in Sight

On the tenth anniversary of the murder of prominent Chechen human rights defender Natalia Estemirova, Amnesty International and 12 international and Russian human rights groups are calling on the Russian authorities to fulfill their long-overdue obligation to effectively investigate this horrendous crime and bring the perpetrators to justice in fair trials. “The courage and selflessness …

June 12, 2019 • Press Release

Mass arrests in Russia show authorities’ contempt for solidarity and rights

Responding to the arbitrary arrests of over 400 people in Moscow who were peacefully protesting the treatment of journalist Ivan Golunov, Denis Krivosheev, Deputy Director of Amnesty International’s Eastern Europe and Central Asia Office, said: “Today’s arbitrary and often brutal arrests of over 400 peaceful protestors, including children, are a perfect example of the cruel …

June 10, 2019 • Press Release

Russia: Titiev’s parole a welcome step but not justice

Responding to news that Shali City Court in Chechnya has granted parole to the imprisoned human rights defender Oyub Titiev after almost one-and-a-half years behind bars, Marie Struthers, Amnesty International’s Director for Eastern Europe and Central Asia said: “We have been calling for Oyub Titiev’s immediate and unconditional release since his detention. The real agenda behind his criminal prosecution …

July 6, 2017 • Press Release

G20 summit: Trump-Putin meeting, a matter of life and death for the people of Syria

The lives of millions of Syrian civilians hang in the balance as the presidents of Russia and the U.S. prepare to meet on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Germany on July 7, to discuss counter-terrorism initiatives and a political resolution to Syria’s war, said Amnesty International.

June 12, 2017 • Press Release

Russia: Mass arrests tighten authorities’ stranglehold on freedom of expression

A crackdown on peaceful protests across Russia in which hundreds of people were arrested and numerous others beaten by police demonstrates the authorities’ utter contempt for fundamental human rights, Amnesty International said today.

May 11, 2017 • Press Release

Knee-jerk repression as LGBTI activists arrested over Chechnya petition

Denis Krivosheev, Deputy Director for Europe and Central Asia at Amnesty International, responds to today’s detention of five LGBTI activists as they were trying to deliver a petition to the Office of Russia's Prosecutor General on Chechnya.

March 27, 2017 • Press Release

Russia: Navalny jailed and hundreds arrested in violent clampdown

Russian opposition leader, Aleksei Navalny, and all the peaceful protesters detained after the mass demonstrations across Russia on Sunday, must be immediately released, said Amnesty International, after he was today sentenced to 15 days in jail.

COVID-19 Crisis: Help now