Democratic Republic of Congo


Democratic Republic of Congo Human Rights

Despite an international agreement in 2003 to end the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo and two further agreements at the beginning of 2008 to end fighting in North Kivu and South Kivu provinces, the DRC remains a combat zone. Millions of Congolese have perished, and over a million more have been displaced. Serious violations of international humanitarian and human rights law have been committed in the eastern part of the country by armed groups and the national army.

Since the international war began in 1996, and up to the present, human rights defenders have faced threats, violence and even murder. Few of those responsible have been punished. Impunity reflects both a lack of will and the ineffectiveness of the Congolese military and civilian justice systems.

International Justice

Despite some efforts by the government and the international community to reform it, the Congolese justice system remains unable to try those responsible for war crimes. The recently released UN Mapping Report noted that while appalling crimes have been committed in the DRC by tens of thousands of perpetrators, only 12 trials for such crimes have taken place since 1993 – all in military rather than civilian courts.

In 2004, the Chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno-Ocampo, announced his decision to open the investigation of crimes allegedly committed in the DRC since July 1, 2002, when the Rome Statue of the ICC went into effect. Since the beginning of its investigation, the ICC has issued arrest warrants for five people allegedly responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the DRC. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Germain Katanga, Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui and, most recently, Callixte Mbarushimana, have been arrested, while Bosco Ntaganda, remains at large.

The ICC trials of Lubanga Dyilo for enlisting and conscripting children under the age of 15 and using them to participate actively in hostilities, and of Katanga and Ngudjolo Chui who are jointly charged with murder, rape, sexual slavery, pillaging, property destruction, attacks against civilians and using children under the age of fifteen to take active part in the hostilities, are ongoing as of November 2010. Mbarushimana was arrested on October 11, 2010by French authorities under an ICC warrant which charged him with 11 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The prosecution of these government and military officials is an important step in ending impunity for crimes committed in the DRC. However, the failure to arrest and surrender of Bosco Ntaganda to the ICC—who the DRC government not only refuses to arrest, but has promoted to the rank of general in its armed forces—will continue to impede justice in the DRC.

Conflict Minerals

The DRC is rich in natural resources, including large deposits of columbite-tantalite (known as coltan), cassiterite, wolframite and gold, which are used in everyday technology such as cell phones, laptops and digital video recorders, as well as in jewelry. Many of the mines from which these minerals are extracted are under the control of armed groups, especially in the volatile eastern part of the country, where conflict has been ongoing for many years despite the presence of a United Nations peacekeeping mission, MONUSCO. A 2009 report by the United Nations Group of Experts on the DRC found that armed groups in eastern DRC continue to control and profit from the extraction and trade of these minerals. Both the conflict and the mining of minerals, itself have led to grave human rights violations, including sexual violence, child and slave labor, and mass displacement.

Amnesty International USA has supported legislative efforts, such as the Conflict Minerals Trade Act, introduced by Congressman Jim McDermott (D-WA) on November 2009 in the U.S. House of Representatives, which have sought to improve transparency and reduce the trade in conflict minerals coming from the DRC.

Legislation on conflict minerals was included in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act that was signed in August 2010 by President Barack Obama. This legislation is a key first step towards disrupting the supply chain that connects minerals used in consumer electronics like cell phones to the violence, insecurity and abuses that have claimed millions of lives in the eastern part of the DRC. Companies under U.S. jurisdiction will now have to verify that the minerals used in the products they make or sell do not directly finance armed conflict or result in human rights abuses. This legislation will greatly advance the goals of regulating and stemming the flow of conflict minerals, and limit the ability of armed groups to benefit from conflict minerals and perpetuate the conflict.

Amnesty International is now working to ensure that companies respect their obligations under this new legislation and ensure that their products do not contribute to the commission of human rights violations in the DRC. Companies that use minerals in their products must ensure that smelters do not source their products from mines currently under the control of armed groups in the DRC. Furthermore, companies must provide consumers with clear and easily accessible information regarding where the minerals used in their products are sourced from, so that consumers may make informed purchasing decisions. Finally, it is especially important that other countries and regions with many companies that source their minerals from the DRC, especially the European Union, pass similar legislation to ensure that companies outside the US do not fuel conflict in the DRC.

Internally Displaced Persons

Watch Amnesty International campaigners report findings from a 10-day fact-finding mission examining conditions in a refugee camp in North Kivu (September 2012)

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Democratic Republic of Congo Newroom

November 14, 2017 • Report

Time to Recharge

Major electronics and electric vehicle companies are still not doing enough to stop human rights abuses entering their cobalt supply chains, almost two years after an Amnesty International investigation exposed how batteries used in their products could be linked to child labour in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the organization said today.

February 18, 2016 • Report

Amnesty International State of the World 2015-2016

International protection of human rights is in danger of unravelling as short-term national self-interest and draconian security crackdowns have led to a wholesale assault on basic freedoms and rights, warned Amnesty International as it launched its annual assessment of human rights around the world. “Your rights are in jeopardy: they are being treated with utter contempt by many governments around the world,” said Salil Shetty, Secretary General of Amnesty International.

January 15, 2016 • Report

This is What We Die For: Human Rights Abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Power the Global Trade in Cobalt

Major electronics brands, including Apple, Samsung and Sony, are failing to do basic checks to ensure that cobalt mined by child laborers has not been used in their products, said Amnesty International and Afrewatch in a report published today.

July 1, 2015 • Report

Operation Mbata ya Bakolo: mass expulsions of foreign nationals in the Republic of Congo

Police violence, persecution, arbitrary detentions and rape amid a security operation to deport tens of thousands of DR Congo nationals from Congo-Brazzaville last year were part of widespread attacks that could amount to crimes against humanity, Amnesty International said in a new report.

February 25, 2015 • Report

State of the World 2014/2015

This has been a devastating year for those seeking to stand up for human rights and for those caught up in the suffering of war zones. Governments pay lip service to the importance of protecting civilians. And yet the world's politicians have miserably failed to protect those in greatest need. Amnesty International believes that this can and must finally change.

June 20, 2013 • Report

Profits and loss: Mining and human rights in Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has some of the world's most important mineral reserves. For more than a decade the extraction of these resources has been linked to conflict, human rights abuses and corruption.

May 17, 2013 • Report

Annual Report: Democratic Republic of Congo 2013

Democratic Republic of the Congo Head of state Joseph Kabila Head of government Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon The already precarious security situation in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) …

June 11, 2012 • Report

“If You Resist, We’ll Shoot You”: The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Case for an Effective Arms Trade Treaty

Arms supplies from the US and others are fueling killings and mass rapes in the DRC, underscoring the need for a global Arms Trade Treaty.

August 9, 2011 • Report

DRC: Neglected Congolese victims deserve justice now

Crimes under international law, including rape and murder, continue to be committed by the Congolese army and armed groups in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo following decades …

June 27, 2011 • Report

Annual Report: Democratic Republic Of The Congo 2011

Head of state: Joseph Kabila Head of government: Adolphe Muzito Death penalty: retentionist Population: 67.8 million Life expectancy: 48 years Under-5 mortality (m/f): 209/187 per 1,000 Adult literacy: 66.6 per …