REPUBLIC OF SENEGAL
Head of state Macky Sall (replaced Abdoulaye Wade)
Head of government Abdoul Mbaye (replaced Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye)
The unrest which marked the pre-election period in January and February resulted in serious human rights violations, including excessive use of force leading to the death of several protesters; torture and other ill-treatment; and attacks on freedom of expression. In Casamance, in the south, clashes between the army and an armed group intensified at the beginning of the year leading to arrests and targeting of civilians. An agreement was signed between Senegal and the AU to establish a special court to try former Chadian President Hissène Habré.
In January and February, security forces violently repressed opponents to the candidacy for a third term of the outgoing President Wade and used excessive force, leading to several casualties. Despite this unrest, new President Macky Sall was elected in March; the results were not challenged.
In October, representatives of the Senegalese government and members of the Democratic Forces of Casamance Movement (MFDC) met in Rome, Italy, under mediation undertaken by the Catholic community Sant'Egidio.
Excessive use of force
At least six people were killed by security forces during the pre-elections unrest.
- In January, gendarmes (paramilitary police) used live ammunition against peaceful demonstrators in Podor. Two people were killed: Mamadou Sy and Bana Ndiaye, a woman aged around 60 who was not participating in the protest.
- In January, Mamadou Diop was killed by a police vehicle during a peaceful demonstration at the Place de l'Obélisque in Dakar. An inquiry was opened but had not concluded by the end of the year.
Torture and other ill-treatment
Several people were tortured and otherwise ill-treated by security forces and at least two of them died in detention, reportedly as a result of torture.
- In February, Ibrahima Fall was tortured and otherwise ill-treated after being arrested in Tivavouane while returning from a demonstration against President Wade's candidacy. He was tortured by gendarmes who hit him with batons, water hoses and electric cables.
- In February, Ousseynou Seck died after being tortured in custody. All the police officers implicated were arrested and were awaiting trial at the end of the year.
- In August, Kécouta Sidibé, a man who was deaf and mute, died reportedly as a result of torture in custody in Kédougou after he was arrested for consuming Indian hemp. In December, the Kaolack Appeal Court declared the deputy commander of the Kédougou gendarmerie guilty of murder and he was arrested. An investigation into the involvement of five other gendarmes was in progress at the end of the year.
Freedom of expression
Political activists and human rights defenders were assaulted and imprisoned for peacefully expressing their opposition to President Wade's candidacy.
- In January, three journalists were beaten by the police. Two worked for the Senegalese daily Le Populaire, and one for the French news agency, Agence France Presse.
- In February, security forces prevented members of the Y'en a marre (We are fed up) movement from organizing a sit-in at the Place de l'Obélisque in Dakar and arrested several people. All were released shortly afterwards without charge.
Human rights violations and abuses in Casamance
Several civilians were arrested or targeted as tension escalated between the MFDC and the army.