Death penalty abolitionist for all crimes
Population 40.3 million
Life expectancy 75.2 years
Under-5 mortality (m/f) 17/14 per 1,000
Adult literacy 97.6 per cent
Indigenous communities faced eviction from their traditional lands, despite legal guarantees. Criminal proceedings to bring to justice those responsible for past human rights violations continued. Conditions of detention remained a serious concern.
Protests and demonstrations against unemployment, high levels of urban crime, poor housing and other social concerns were widespread. A monthly allowance for each child, payable to unemployed or low-income parents or those working in the informal sector, was established by government decree in October in an attempt to tackle social exclusion
Indigenous Peoples' rights
Indigenous communities continued to face eviction orders in breach of international standards and of a 2006 national emergency law temporarily suspending the execution of eviction orders or the removal of Indigenous communities from traditional lands. Lack of progress regarding the nationwide land survey led Congress to extend the applicability of the 2006 law until November 2013.
Indigenous communities were denied their right to free, prior and informed consent in projects involving exploitation of natural resources on Indigenous lands.
Around 150 Mapuches faced criminal charges in connection with protests over land rights and against judicial eviction orders in Neuquén Province.
- In October, 68-year-old Javier Chocobar, a member of the Indigenous Diaguita community of Los Chuschagasta, Tucumán Province, was killed by a landowner attempting to drive the community off their ancestral land. The landowner and two other men were under investigation at the end of the year.
- A lawsuit lodged in 2001 by members of the Indigenous Pilagá community in El Descanso, Formosa Province, remained pending at the end of 2009. The case involved irrigation works carried out in 1997, which the community believe affect their traditional territories. The right to free, prior and informed consent over a major infrastructure development in the province was not upheld.
Impunity – justice for past violations
There was progress in bringing to justice key perpetrators of past human rights violations. However, insufficient resources led to protracted delays. According to the Prosecution Co-ordination Unit, more than 600 people were facing criminal proceedings for human rights violations, including enforced disappearances, at the end of the year. Trials resulted in more than 30 convictions during the year.