During the period leading up to the agreement, Somaliland government officials regularly arrested and briefly detained independent journalists. The government also maintained security committees which carried out arbitrary arrests; more than 200 individuals were detained in 2009. Human rights defenders censored their own reporting out of fear that they could be arrested or their organizations shut down.
Three protesters were killed and six injured during a demonstration on 12 September. Police fired tear gas and bullets to disperse a crowd outside a parliament building, which was closed several days earlier after a gun was drawn during a parliamentary session.
Tensions remained high in border areas claimed by the semi-autonomous Puntland Region of Somalia. Somaliland continued to host displaced Somalis without sufficient international support.
The TFG reportedly established a military court in Mogadishu to try soldiers accused of criminal offences in October. The court reportedly sentenced six soldiers to death, including three in their absence, for murder.
In Puntland, at least six people were sentenced to death for murder, including two tried in their absence. No executions were known to have been carried out.
- On 27 April, Ifraah Ali Aden was sentenced to death after a summary trial by the court of first instance in Bossaso, Puntland, after being found guilty of murdering another woman. She was convicted the day after the murder.
Amnesty International visit/reports
Amnesty International delegates visited Somaliland in September.
Somalia: Human Rights Challenges - Somaliland Facing Elections (17 March 2009)
Somalia: End indiscriminate shelling in Mogadishu (19 June 2009)
Somalia: Amnesty International calls for accountability and safeguards on arms transfers to Somalia's Transitional Federal Government (11 August 2009)
Somalia: Unlawful killings and torture demonstrate al-Shabaab's contempt for the lives of civilians (24 November 2009)
Somalia: Protection of civilians should be a paramount concern for the UN Security Council, (16 January 2009 )
Somalia: Allegations of AU force firing on civilians need investigating, (5 February 2009)